Parts Used: Leaves and twigs
- Choleretic (increases the flow of bile from the gall bladder)
- Diuretic (increases the flow of urine and relieves fluid retention)
- Emmenagogue (stimulate blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus; some stimulate menstruation)
- Rubefacient (increases the blood flow to the surface area of the skin via increased circulaton)
Major Safety Issues:
- Should not be used during pregnancy.
- Caution should be exercised if using the oil internally, particularly in small children.
- Considered harmless in low therapeutic doses.
- The pure oil however in large doses can be toxic and has been reported to cause abortion.
- May cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.